The field of construction has advanced tremendously throughout the ages, largely because of advances in materials and technology. Mass-produced steel led to the widespread use of I-beams and reinforced concrete. Moreover, the widespread use of plumbing made it possible for building designers to develop corrosion-resistant plastic composite pipes. Additionally, building codes have improved the quality of building materials and fire safety. In addition, heavy equipment such as cranes, elevators, and prefabrication have increased construction capacity. And in the late 20th century, the importance of sustainability became a priority in construction.
Building materials have long been crucial to the success of a construction project. The evolution of human civilization is closely linked to the development of construction and its materials. The first known building materials date back to 400 BC and are still used in construction today. Buildings have been a part of human life since prehistory, and today, we take many of our materials from ancient civilizations and apply them to modern construction.
Ancient peoples used wood to build temporary structures, including fences, military structures, and barriers. In parts of Europe and North America, wood was a popular building material, and timber is still commonly used in the frames of modern homes. However, the Romans made use of concrete in their constructions, as this was inexpensive and easy to produce. The cheap nature of concrete made it very versatile, as it could be used for both temporary and permanent structures.
During the Middle Ages, stone became the predominant building material for most buildings. The use of glass was also widespread in this period. The expansion of the Republic of Venice helped accelerate the development of glass in buildings. Bricks were also used extensively in the Renaissance era, and they eventually replaced stone. The Renaissance period also saw the introduction of plaster, which was used as a decorative material and as a protective coating.
Before the invention of fire, humans used mud bricks and ice caves as their primary building materials. They also built structures out of stone and wood. As their materials improved, they learned how to use wood and stone in composite structures. This knowledge is now used by architects and engineers. People throughout the ages have admired the use of materials.
Thermal insulation in construction is not a new concept, but its history is relatively short compared to that of other materials. In the prehistoric period, people built their homes using animal skins and fur, or plants like reed, flax, or straw. They also used these materials for clothing.
Currently, the International Building Code (IBC) has a mandatory requirement for thermal insulation in buildings. In addition to the code, some countries have their own standards, focusing on the heat loss through the building shell. This means that the performance of insulation depends heavily on how well it is installed and whether it has been properly protected by vapor barriers.
Thermal insulation has many applications and benefits. It helps us save energy by keeping our homes warm, helps local firefighters keep warm, and protects us from freezing temperatures. It also prevents condensation from forming on cold surfaces. Here are a few of the ways thermal insulation has protected us through the ages:
Until the 1930s, many people used vermiculite or perlite in their attics. While these materials were environmentally friendly, they had health risks and could be harmful to the environment. Luckily, advances in technology have improved our insulation options. Today, polyurethane foam (PUF) is one of the most popular forms of foam insulation, but it is expensive and difficult to install. Polystyrene is another alternative that is relatively inexpensive, although it is not as environmentally friendly as foam insulation.
Cost of construction has changed over the centuries, with the most significant changes occurring during the 20th century. Cities are becoming more expensive and complicated to build in, and zoning laws have become stricter, which increases the overall cost of construction. In many cities, building permits can take years, and some require dozens of stages. In San Francisco, for example, it takes about four years to obtain the necessary permits.
Labor costs vary by region. In some areas, the average hourly wage is nearly double that of a rural community. In other areas, construction wages are dictated by local rules, known as “prevailing wages.” These costs are also subject to seasonal changes, as labor rates in certain parts of the country are seasonal and in short supply during certain times of the year.
Construction costs in the United States have reached their highest level in 50 years. In fact, the annual cost of a new single-family home will increase by 17.5% by 2021, the biggest increase since 1970. In January 2022, the average price of a new single-family home will be $496,900, up from an average of $402,300 in January 2020.
NAHB’s Construction Cost Survey is conducted periodically. Its most recent survey was conducted in fall of 2019. Construction costs account for 61.1 percent of the final sale price, while finished lot costs account for 18.5 percent. The remainder is made up of the builder’s profit, which is 9.1 percent. The largest portion of construction costs goes to the interior finishes and framing. The second-largest share goes to labor and materials. This includes the cost of hiring subcontractors to help with construction.
The fire hazard in construction through the ages is the deterioration of building materials, which may result in a partial or complete collapse of a building. These fires also lead to permanent structural damage and may lead to premature failure of a building under other natural hazards. Thus, fire prevention should be a top priority in building codes.
There are several causes of fire, ranging from cooking to the accumulation of trash, which all contribute to fire hazards. In older buildings, renovations may have created large or multiple concealed voids in the walls. Although wood structures have non-combustible exteriors, they still pose a fire hazard due to their lightweight composition. Additionally, fire-cut joists and void spaces can facilitate the spread of fire.
Several building codes are based on performance-based classification, which states how to construct structures and manage the effects of fire. They define the function of various building elements under fire conditions, the maximum density of fuel, and egress requirements. They also specify the type of materials and minimum member dimensions that must be used to meet the required fire rating.
In the United States, the highest number of fires occur in residential buildings. Although fire-related deaths are common, fire hazards are largely preventable. Building codes should be updated frequently to reflect the changing nature of fire hazards and their impact. Fire safety regulations should include a system of penalties and a mechanism for enforcement.
Construction can be broadly characterized as building work performed on land. This process involves the extraction of raw materials, the manufacture of building components, and the execution of physical work on site. Construction industry products have diverse characteristics and affect the economy in different ways. Some of the more prominent constructions include bridges, tunnels, airfields, harbors, and industrial facilities.
The history of construction focuses on the characteristics of the industry, including its role in city growth, the development of technology, and the evolution of materials. It also highlights the role played by construction in contributing to national income. According to the United Nations, value added in construction can be defined as gross output value (at producers’ prices) less all current purchases from other enterprises. These purchases exclude the cost of input materials, hiring plant, and labor. In addition, the value of goods sold in the same condition as they were purchased are not included. Further, professional and legal fees are not included in the total value of construction output.
The construction industry is a highly volatile industry. Its outputs are subject to wide fluctuations, and often lag behind other sectors. In fact, the World Bank studied different countries’ construction industry and found that it experienced a much wider range of fluctuations than the manufacturing and economic sectors. In Europe, the construction industry has been found to be more affected by the business cycle than other sectors. This is due to the nature of construction demand, which is derived from other economic activities.